The inner lining of the womb contains glands and are responsible for the monthly menstrual bleed in the pre-menopausal woman. Sometimes, endometrial polyps can arise from this lining, taking the shape of a small grape, located within the cavity of the womb. The size of polyps may vary from a few millimetres, up to a few centimetres. They may be solitary or a few may exist at the same time. They often cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, prolonged bleeding or unscheduled bleeding. Endometrial polyps are usually benign, although some may contain pre-cancerous changes; frankly cancerous polyps are uncommon in the younger woman.

The removal of endometrial polyps requires hysteroscopy (an endoscopic procedure, similar to keyhole surgery). There is no need for incision, as the endoscope is passed through the natural opening of the vagina and cervix to enter the womb.

Despite removal, endometrial polyps can still recur, hence it is necessary to monitor after hysteroscopy, especially those with pre-cancerous changes.