Lower genital tract infections are common woes of women in the reproductive age group. Accurate diagnosis and identification of the culpable germs will allow the appropriate treatment to be prescribed. In women with recurrent infections, targeted lifestyle modification and prevention are important too.


Fibroids are tumours, originating from the muscle wall of the womb and are mostly benign in nature (cancerous fibroids are very rare). They are very common in women and depending on their numbers, size and location, they may cause heavy menstrual bleeding, pain or may be silent. Large fibroids (especially if growing rapidly) should be removed, as they may cause obstruction to the pelvic structures. Removal of fibroids can be done with laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) or conventional open surgery, depending on the size and number of fibroids. Some women who have completed their family or are near menopause may consider removal of the entire womb together with the fibroid, to prevent a recurrence. Smaller, stable fibroids not causing any symptoms may be left alone and monitored regularly.


Ovaries are reproductive structure in the female pelvis, which release eggs in monthly menstrual cycles for fertilization by sperm. The ovaries are also important for their role in producing female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) before menopause set in.

Ovarian cysts are commonly found in women of the reproductive age group. They are liquid-filled structures within the ovaries (much like a small balloon filled with water, blood, mucus or other fluid), the type of cells lining the cyst (the rubber of the balloon) determines its nature. Most ovarian cysts are benign, especially in the young woman. Cancerous cysts are more common as age increases. Ovarian cysts that are large, causing pain or look suspicious on scans should be removed for a detailed examination to determine their nature.

Depending on the number of cysts, their sizes and suspicion level for cancer, ovarian cysts may be removed with laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) or open surgery. In some cases, the entire ovary or both ovaries may be removed if necessary.


Fallopian tubes are delicate structure of the reproductive tract, which when exposed to infection or inflammation, can be swollen or blocked, leading to infertility, recurrent infection and pain. Treatment has to be individualised for each woman, especially if fertility is desired.


Irregular cycles, painful menstruation, heavy flow or a combination of these may affect any woman in the reproductive age group. Treatment has to be tailored for each individual. Do consult our gynaecologist to investigate the cause and treat accordingly.


Endometriosis and adenomyosis are two of the commonest gynaecological disorders suffered by women in the reproductive age group. Besides their negative impact on fertility, they also cause a range of symptoms in affected women, such as severe menstrual cramps, heavy menstrual bleeding and chronic pelvic pain. Some women may experience discomfort or pain during intercourse, or even when they visit the toilet.

These two distinct conditions share a common mechanism, whereby the usual lining of the womb is displaced to various structures of the pelvis (endometriosis), or into the wall of the womb, leading to thickening of the muscle wall (adenomyosis). They often exist in the same patient, causing severe symptoms. You should let your gynaecologist perform a detail examination and pelvic scan to look for evidence of these conditions if you have the above symptoms, or infertility.

Treatment includes oral pain-killers and anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal regimes, implants and surgery. The therapy should be tailored to suit the individual woman.


Consult our gynaecologist to tailor a screening package to suit your health profile.